Haemorrhoids, commonly known as piles refer to a condition in which the veins around the anus or in the rectum become swollen and inflamed. Majority of people may suffer from haemorrhoids at some point in their life time. It is more common in individuals aged between 45 and 65 years and in pregnant women. External haemorrhoids occur on the skin around the anus whereas internal haemorrhoids develop in the rectum. Internal haemorrhoids tend to protrude out through the anus.



The appendix is a finger-shaped tube 3½-inches long extending from the right side of the large intestine. The exact function of this organ is not very clear. Appendicitis is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and filled with pus. It is a medical emergency requiring immediate surgical removal of the appendix.


Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ which lies just below the liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid that is sent from the liver. Most cases of cholecystitis are caused by gallstones. Gallstones are crystalline structures that develop in the gallbladder or the bile ducts and can interfere with the normal flow of bile leading to inflammation.


Oesophagitis may be caused by different conditions and sometimes more than one factor may play a role. Reflux oesophagitis occurs when acidic contents of the stomach enter the oesophagus causing irritation. A sphincter muscle at the junction of the oesophagus and stomach usually prevents this from happening, but it may occur with gastroesophageal reflux disease, vomiting, hiatal hernia, achalasia or following bariatric surgery.


Peritoneum is a lining of tissue that covers most of the internal organs as well as the inner side of the abdominal wall. Peritoneal fluid is present in the space between the lining layers (peritoneal space). Inflammation of the peritoneum is called peritonitis, a serious condition that requires prompt treatment to avoid complications.


The pancreas, located in the abdomen, is responsible for the production of digestive juices and the hormones insulin and glucagon. Inflammation of the pancreas leads to a condition called pancreatitis. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Acute pancreatitis is usually a milder form of pancreatitis, characterised by sudden and severe abdominal pain. Other symptoms include fever, vomiting, nausea, sweating, swelling in the abdominal region, feeling of fullness due to gas, mild jaundice and clay-coloured stools.